IPM Standards Appendices
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Appendices - HTML Format
Part I. IPM Standards for School
Buildings - HTML Format
Part II. IPM Standards for School
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Appendix B. Glossary
Synonyms are listed in parentheses:
Action Thresholds (Action Level) - The number of pests or level of pest damage requiring action to prevent damage from exceeding tolerable levels. For some pests, the action level will be one, for example a single yellowjacket in a classroom.
For other pests, action may be needed before pests or pest damage appears. In those cases, an action threshold may be defined as a set of conditions, e.g., plant is at a susceptible stage and all or nearly all environmental conditions are in place for a pest problem to occur. For example, fire blight disease of rosaceous landscape plants requires (1) warm temperatures (above an average temperature of 60 F for three consecutive days); (2) a route of entry through the plants' defenses (open blossoms, hail damage or other wounds); (3) free water (heavy dew, rainfall); plus (4) availability of bacterial spores. An action level for fire-blight-susceptible plants can be defined based on the first three requirements, especially if the site or adjacent sites have a history of fire blight infected plants.
Including written action thresholds in the IPM Plan presents a clear statement of intentions, before a pest event occurs. This guidance can be invaluable to those called to respond to a pest situation, and can prevent under or over-reactions to pest problems.
For a great explanation of action thresholds, see Maryland Department of Agriculture, "Action Thresholds in School IPM Programs." Pesticide Regulation Section, Annapolis, MD. 10 pp. Available at
Anti-microbial pesticide - A pesticide used for control of microbial pests including viruses, bacteria, algae and protozoa or the purpose of disinfecting or sanitizing.
Anti-microbials do not include fungicides used on plants.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - An approach to maintaining insect, mite, disease, nematode, weed, or vertebrate pests at tolerable levels by using biological knowledge of pests and pest behavior to implement long-term, least-risk solutions. Pests and pest damage is monitored and action is taken only when necessary to prevent damage from exceeding tolerable levels. Actions are selected with the least risk to humans and other non-pest organisms and the environment, and are carefully timed for maximum effectiveness. Strategies are implemented to resolve factors that contribute to pest problems, avoiding the need to take action in the future.
IPM Committee - This group addresses pest management issues on an ongoing basis. The committee should include representation from all segments of the school community, including administration, staff and parents. The role of the committee is to formulate IPM policy and plans and provide oversight and ongoing decision-making, incorporating input from all interested parties.
IPM Continuum - The progression of pest management strategies towards least-risk, long-term prevention and avoidance of pest problems. The Continuum begins with a focus on monitoring and chemical suppression when pests approach unacceptable levels, and ends with balanced systems where pests remain at tolerable levels with minimal cultural and biological interventions. (For more information, see back cover.)
IPM Coordinator - The school employee responsible for day-to-day interpretation of the IPM policy for a school or school system. The IPM Coordinator may or may not be a pest management professional, but is the decision-maker who receives specialized training in IPM, accesses the advice of professionals and chooses a course of action. For example, the IPM Coordinator may be the facilities manager or environmental manager. For schools with an in-house professional pest management program, the IPM Coordinator may also be the Pest Manager.
IPM Plan - A written document including specific information regarding the operation of the school's IPM program, such as IPM roles for all school staff, parents, students and other community members; pesticide application notification policies; list of key pests; action thresholds, a risk-based hierarchy of control options and prevention/avoidance strategies to be used for key pests; inspection schedules for school facilities; policies for working with outside contractors; lists of resources for resolving technical questions; and other pertinent information. The IPM Plan provides an excellent tool for training new personnel including during management transitions. The Plan is a "living document," updated frequently with new information as it becomes available. IPM Plans are often developed in binder format, so that information can be easily added and updated.
IPM policy - A written document stating a school's commitment to IPM and defining overall IPM goals. This document is updated periodically, and used to guide decision-making as the IPM program is implemented.
Key pest - An insect, mite, disease, nematode or weed that frequently results in unacceptable damage and thus typically requires a control action. Key pests vary from one region to the next. Key pest status is dependent on action thresholds set for the pest. For example, cutworms may be a key pest on high-visibility athletic fields, but not on adjacent lawn areas where the typical level of cutworm damage is very tolerable. Routine or regularly scheduled pesticide applications can mask key pests, which may not become apparent for some time after routine pesticide applications have been stopped.
Key plant - A plant that frequently experiences unacceptable pest damage and thus typically requires treatment. Key plants very from one region to the next. Poor care or improper placement within the landscape can result in a plant becoming a key plant by increasing its susceptibility to pest problems.
Least-Impact Pest Control Options - Pest controls meeting specific criteria listed in Appendix A.
Management Unit - A subdivision that that is typically treated the same. Dividing landscapes into management units permits more accurate response to site-specific conditions. For example, it is often a good idea to divide school lawns into front and back lawn management units. Front lawn and back lawns may have different soil types, shading, slopes, etc. By sampling and testing soil from those areas separately, test results and fertilization will be more precise and give better results. Pest monitoring can also be conducted separately and action thresholds set higher for front lawns, because appearance is more critical than for less visible back lawns. In school buildings, pool and locker room areas, food preparation and service areas, and boiler rooms are examples of specific management units.
Pathogen - A living microorganism, usually a bacterium, fungus, mycoplasm or virus that can cause disease when a host is present under the right environmental conditions.
Pest - A term applied to an organism (e.g., insect, mite, disease, nematode, weed, vertebrate, microbe, etc.) when it causes a problem to humans. A pest in one environment can be very beneficial in another, e.g., many plants considered weeds when found in lawns can be essential to the restoration of wild landscapes after a disturbance such as flood or fire.
Pest Management Roles - The responsibilities assumed by individuals in the school system to maintain an environment free of interference from pest and pesticide risks.
Pest Manager - The individual who conducts actions and/or directs others to maintain effective pest management at a site. The Pest Manager receives specialized pest management and IPM training, and is licensed and certified to apply pesticides in schools. The Pest Manager may be a school employee or a professional Pest Manager contracting with the school. For schools with an in-house professional pest management program, the IPM Coordinator may also be the Pest Manager.
Priority Practices - Practices in the Standards labeled "Priority" must be implemented for certification. You must earn at least 80% of the points for each Priority Practice to become IPM Certified.
Reduced-Impact Pest Control Options - Pest controls meeting specific criteria listed in Appendix A.
Scouting (Monitoring, Inspection) - Planned, regular monitoring or a crop, ornamental planting, landscape or structure for the purpose of detecting pests, pest damage or conditions conducive to pests or pest damage.
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These IPM Standards would not have been possible without the generous contribution of time and thought from many individuals, including the following:
Trevor Battle and Mark Buffone, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture; Lynn
Braband, Jody Gangloff and Curtis Petzoldt, Cooperative Extension, Cornell University; Kristine
Braman, Cooperative Extension, University of Georgia; Paul Burns, Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group, Boston, MA; John Carter, Monroe County Community Schools Corp., Bloomington IN; Alan Cohen, Bio-Logical Pest Management Inc., Washington DC; William Coli, Reg Coler and Craig Hollingsworth, UMass Extension; Robert Corrigan, RMC Consulting, Richmond IN; Edward Crow, Maryland Department of Agriculture; Dan Dickerson, Director, Pest Control, NYC Board of Education; Philip Dickey, Washington Toxics Coalition, Seattle WA; Doug Dickson and Dan Bach, Newton IPM Advisory Committee, Newton MA; Carrie Foss and Arthur
Antonelli, Cooperative Extension, Washington State University; Lynn
Garling, Cooperative Extension, Penn State University; Ellie Goldberg, Healthy Kids, Newton MA; Daniel LaHart and Denise Frye, Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Pasadena MD; Marc Lame, Indiana University; Will Lanier, Cooperative Extension, Montana State University; Michael Merchant, Cooperative Extension, Texas A&M University; Kathy Murray, Maine Department of Agriculture, Food & Rural Resources; Jane
Nogaki, NJ Environmental Federation; Kagan Owens, National Coalition Against Misuse of Pesticides, Washington DC; Michael Pierce, Robert DeLuca and Michael Davis, Newton Public Schools, Newtonville MA; Don
Prostak, American IPM, Glen Gardner NJ; Debbie Raphael, IPM Coordinator, City/County of San Francisco; Don
Rivard, Rivard's Resources - IPM, Waltham MA; Robyn Rose and Kathy Seikel, US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs; Cliff
Sadof, Cooperative Extension, Purdue University; Clay Scherer, Cooperative Extension, University of Florida; Paula Shrewsbury and Betty
Marose, Cooperative Extension, University of Maryland; Deborah Smith-Fiola, Cooperative Extension, Rutgers University; John
Stier, Cooperative Extension, University of Wisconsin; and Michael
Waldvogel, Cooperative Extension, North Carolina State University.
Technical information was drawn from the experience of contributors and publications listed in Appendix C and especially from Daar et al. (1997), Driestadt et al. (1994), Hollingsworth (2000), Mallis (1997) and Vail and Croker (1999). Any errors or omissions are those of the editor. Information contained in this document does not necessarily represent the views and opinions of the contributors or their organizations, and no endorsement is implied.
The following IPM assessment systems for agriculture provided models for these Standards:
Guillebeau, P. and G. Van De Mark, 1999. Georgia Farm*A*Syst/Cotton*A*Syst Cotton IPM: Farm Assessment System. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service, Athens GA.
Hollingsworth, C. S. and W. M. Coli, eds., 1999. Massachusetts Integrated Pest Management Guidelines: Crop Specific Definitions. University of Massachusetts Extension Integrated Pest Management Program, Amherst MA. Available at
National Potato Council, 1998. The National IPM Protocol for Potatoes: A Pest Management Assessment Tool and Educational Program Developed for America's Potato Growers. Englewood, CO. More at
Petzoldt, C., J. Kovach and A. Seaman, eds., 1999. Integrated Pest Management Standards for New York Crops. New York State Integrated Pest Management Program No. 124. 64 pp. Available at
Funding has been provided by the IPM Program of the United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service
(USDA-CSREES), the Gerber Products Company and members and supporters of the IPM
Dedicated to Ronald J. Prokopy who is responsible for my IPM foundation. - The Editor
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The IPM Continuum
IPM is a collection of practices, all designed to maximize effectiveness and minimize risks associated with pests and pesticides:
§ Monitoring and thresholds. Actions are taken against pests only when truly necessary, not on a routine basis or regular schedule. Pests are dealt with as problems arise with a focus on monitoring and chemical control. Pest and pesticide risks are reduced by improving timing and pest-specificity of control actions and eliminating routine pesticide applications. Entry Level IPM practices include inspection and monitoring to identify pest levels and conditions favoring pests; accurate identification and diagnosis of problems; and using the minimum effective amount of least-risk pesticides only when pests exceed predetermined levels.
§ Choosing effective, reduced-risk options.
Efforts to reduce pesticide risks include replacement of high-risk pesticides with lesser risk alternatives. Broad-spectrum pesticides, toxic to many different pests, are replaced with selective controls tailored to the pest problem at hand, including non-chemical options. Pesticides, when necessary, are applied at the lowest effective rate and to as limited an area as possible. Responses to insect, disease, weed and other pest problems are coordinated to minimize unfavorable interactions.
§ Establishing long-term, preventive and avoidance strategies.
Implementing solutions to prevent pest problems reduces the need for chemical or non-chemical intervention. Pest management is integrated with structural design and maintenance, sanitation, horticultural practices, personnel training and other key factors to maximize overall performance and minimize risks and environmental impacts. High Level IPM practices include modifying structures to avoid pest problems, new or renovated structure design minimizes pest problems, and staff and students are educated to actively participate and share responsibility in preventing and avoiding pest problems.
- After Balling, S., 1994. The IPM Continuum. In Constraints to the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management, A. Sorenson, ed. National Foundation for IPM Education; and Benbrook, et al., 1996. Pest Management at the Crossroads. Consumers Union, Yonkers NY
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Version 2.2 is also available in html and PDF format from the IPM Institute's Web site. Version
2.2 includes additions to the appendices including model legislation, school pest management practice surveys, IPM curricula and workshop ideas, directory of organizations with school IPM resources and school pest management headlines from U.S. newspapers. This version also includes revised pest control options definitions
(Appendix A) and other minor revisions throughout. Your comments and suggestions are welcome.
IPM Standards for Schools, copyright 2000 by the IPM Institute of North America, Inc.,
Thomas A. Green, Ph.D., Editor
Permission is granted to use this document in whole or in part for non-commercial educational use with proper credit to the source, including publication name, publisher and publication date. Any commercial use for sale or profit requires prior permission from the IPM Institute.
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